The important components in an LED light include a chip, drive circuit and light shell.
LED light for the chip, the quality of the large chip LED better than the small chip, different chips, the price varies greatly, the price is proportional to the size of the chip.
1 What is an LED chip?
The heart of an LED is a semiconductor chip, one end of which is attached to a bracket, and the other end is connected to the power supply’s positive electrode, making the entire chip epoxy.
A semiconductor wafer consists of two parts. One part is a P-type semiconductor, in which holes dominate, and the other part is an n-type semiconductor, in which electrons dominate. But when the two semiconductors are connected, they form a P-N junction.
When an electric current is applied to the chip through a wire, the electrons are pushed toward the p region, where they recombine with the holes and emit energy in the form of photons, which is how an LED light emits light. And the wavelength of light, the color of light, is determined by the material that forms the P-N junction.
LED uses a cold light source, glare is small, no radiation, and use does not produce harmful substances. Led Low Voltage, DC drive mode, ultra-low power consumption (single tube 0.03 ~ 0.06 W), electro-optic power conversion close to 100%, in the same lighting effect as the traditional light source energy saving of more than 80%.
Led is a solid cold light source, epoxy packaging, anti-vibration, there is no loose part of the light body, there is no filament light burning, heat deposition, light decay, and other shortcomings, the service life of up to 60,000 to 100,000 hours, is more than 10 times the traditional light source service life.
The drive power supply
The main function of the drive circuit is to convert the AC power supply to the DC power supply, and at the same time complete the voltage and current by the LED to drive the corresponding components, if the drive circuit is abnormal, will affect the normal operation of the entire LED light.
1 what is the drive power
LED drive power converts the power supply into a specific voltage and current that drives the LED’s Voltage converter, usually:
LED power supply input includes high-voltage power frequency AC (that is, electricity), low-voltage DC, high-voltage DC, and low-voltage high-frequency AC (such as the output of electronic transformers).
The output of the LED power supply is a mostly constant current source which can change the voltage with the change of LED voltage drop. The core components of an LED power supply include a switch controller, inductor, MOSFET, feedback resistor, input filter, output filter, and so on.
According to the requirements of different occasions, there should be an input over-voltage protection circuit, input under-voltage protection circuit, LED open-circuit protection, and over-current protection circuit.
2 The core and operation mode of the driving power supply
A driver chip: the core of the IC driver power supply is IC. The quality of IC directly affects the whole power supply.
B. Transformer, control chip can be seen as the power supply of the brain centre, while the decision power, temperature resistance, and so on is the transformer. In the four links of power generation, transmission, distribution, and power consumption, the power transformer appears in the first three links.
First, in the power generation, the power transformer to the power grid generated by the power plant, and increase the power plant output voltage, to meet the transmission network rated high voltage requirements. The transformer used here belongs to the boost transformer.
Second, for the voltage conversion between different voltage levels of the power grid.
Third, the terminal is used to transmit electricity, through the power transformer at all levels to reduce the voltage to meet the voltage requirements of the distribution network.
C. Electrolytic capacitors and chip ceramic capacitors, the quality and life requirements of the input electrolytic capacitors may be known to everyone, but everyone is also very important.
D. Power product circuit design and welding process, the design of good or bad judgment: regardless of the professional angle, can be achieved through some intuitive methods
E. Power product batch testing ageing rack and high-temperature ageing room, materials and production process control again good power products, or need to test
The shell of a light
Led light brightness is very strong, it is easy to make light energy into heat, making LED light is very hot, if the LED light can not quickly heat, its life will be greatly shortened.
1 Led light housing material
Led light shells can make plastic, iron, or aluminium, but most lights with aluminium shells, because of the lead in the work, will produce heat, causing its junction temperature to rise, which will seriously affect its light efficiency and life, even dead lights. And aluminium heat dissipation is good and can be a good heat generation to the surrounding environment.
2 For the LED light housing selection of several suggestions
There are several types of cases currently used in LED lights:
A: car aluminium, die-casting aluminium: Advantages: heat conduction block; disadvantages: high cost, electrical conductivity (not better than safety regulations)
B: Plastic: low cost, slow heat conduction, small heat dissipation area
C: Plastic wrap aluminium: between the car aluminium and plastic!
The benefits of using LED lights
LED lights exist in all aspects of our lives and are also the most widely used type of light and lanterns. Many people know that LED lights are energy-saving and environmentally friendly, but what are the advantages of LED lights? The following small series for everyone to introduce the ten advantages of LED lights.
- The light body is very small
LEDs are very small, very fine chips encapsulated in transparent epoxy, so they are very small and very light, saving a lot of material and space in making and using them.
- Very low energy consumption
The operating voltage and current of LED are 2 ~ 3.6 V and 0.02 ~ 0.03 A. In other words: it consumes no more than 0.1 W of electricity, using more than 90% less energy than the same efficiency of incandescent lights, energy-saving lights than 70%. Therefore, only the LED can be called a real energy-saving light source!
- Strong and durable
The LED chip is completely encapsulated in epoxy. The tiny epoxy particles are extremely difficult to break, there is no loose part of the entire light, and the chip inside is extremely difficult to break and has a little thermal effect that can evaporate and fuse. These features make LEDs hard to break. Compared with ordinary light bulbs, and fluorescent lights, LED can be said to be impregnable, rugged times numerous times, and durable times numerous times.
4) Long Service Life
With the right current and voltage, LED life can reach 100,000 hours, that is, the theoretical product life of more than 10 years, is the only long-life luminaire star.
5) Safe Low Voltage
LED uses a low-voltage DC power supply (can be converted from AC to DC), power supply voltage between 6 ~ 24V, due to different products vary. In short, it is safer than a high-voltage power supply DC power supply, especially suitable for homes and public places.
6) Wide range of application
Because of its small size, each unit LED chip is 3 ~ 5mm square or circular, so it is more suitable for the preparation of complex moulding process devices. For example, the manufacture of soft, flexible tubes, light belts, and special-shaped flowers, is currently only suitable for LED.
7) More Colorful
The previous lights and lanterns’ color is very simple, to achieve the goal of color, one is in the surface of the lights and lanterns brush paint or cover colored film, two is in the lights and lanterns filled with inert gas luminescence, so the richness of color is limited. LED is a digital control, light-emitting chips can currently emit a variety of colors, including red, green, and blue tricolors, it is this tricolor, through the system control, can restore the colorful Buddhist cosmology.
- less heat dissipation
LED is a more advanced cold light source, it does not unlike incandescent lights, and fluorescent lights as a large amount of infrared and ultraviolet radiation, especially suitable for cultural relics, jewellery, high-end cosmetics, and other valuables lighting. There is almost no incandescent light-like current heat effect, will no be heat expansion and contraction of the impact of the bubble. It will not make the light bulb yellow, will not make the light accelerate ageing, and will not cause the greenhouse effect on the surrounding environment.
9) Less environmental pollution
The environmental protection of LED is mainly manifested in three aspects:
First, there is no harm from metallic mercury. Unlike fluorescent lights, which use high-risk mercury, LED bulbs do not have the potential to leak mercury ions during manufacturing or after breakages, such as phosphor, or other public hazards.
Second, the LED epoxy are organic macromolecule with excellent physical chemistry properties after curing, high bonding strength to wafers and metals, hardness and flexibility, and stability to salts and alkali as well as most solvents, not easy to damage, even if damaged or ageing can also be recycled, will not pollute the environment.
Third, in LED lights and display particle layout, the resulting light is generally scattered, rarely light pollution.
10） more cost-effective
Compared to incandescent lights, fluorescent lights, and LED lights procurement prices are higher. However, because LED energy consumption is particularly low, in the long term can save a lot of electricity, and can save the investment in light replacement, so the cost of integrated use is more cost-effective.
What should be paid attention to when using or installing LED lights?
1． the operator should wear a grounding anti-static wrist, wear anti-static shoes, and anti-static clothing.
2. If the LED is damaged by static electricity, shows bad characteristics, leakage current increases, static voltage down or up, in the low current test is not bright or light is not normal.
3, the use of LED equipment and instruments must be well-grounded, especially soldering iron and tin furnace must be well-grounded.
4, anti-static gloves to test every day, unqualified must be replaced.
5, LED lights will increase with the voltage, and the current increases rapidly.
6. Use a resistor in series with the LED light to limit the current.
In a word, the main components of LED lights are the chip, the drive circuit and the shell of the light. Only when we have a better understanding of the LED lights, can we better use it.
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