The IP rating is the international code used to determine the protection level.
The IP level is composed of two numbers. The first number means dustproof. The second number means waterproof, the largest the number, the better the protection level.
As below information from Wikipedia:
First digit: Solid particle protection
The first digit indicates the level of protection that the enclosure provides against access to hazardous parts (e.g., electrical conductors, moving parts) and the ingress of solid foreign objects.
|Level Sized||Effective Against||Description|
|X||–||X means there is no data available to specify a protection rating with regard to this criterion|
|0||–||No protection against contact and ingress of objects|
|1||>50 mm 2.0 in||Any large surface of the body, such as the back of a hand, but no problems against deliberate contact with a body part.|
|2||>12.5 mm 0.49 in||Fingers or similar objects|
|3||>2.5 mm 0.098 in||Tools, thick wires, etc.|
|4||>1 mm 0.039 in||Most wires, slender screws, large ants, etc.|
|5||Dust protected||Ingress of dust is not entirely prevented, but it must not enter in sufficient quantity to interfere with the satisfactory operation of the equipment.|
|6||Dust-tight||No ingress of dust, complete protection against contact (dust-tight). A vacuum must be applied. Test duration of up to 8 hours based on airflow.|
Second digit: Liquid ingress protection
The second digit indicates the level of protection that the enclosure provides against harmful ingress of water. The ratings for water ingress are not cumulative beyond IPX6. A device that is compliant with IPX7 (covering immersion in water) is not necessarily compliant with IPX5 or IPX6 (covering exposure to water jets). A device that meets both tests is indicated by listing both tests separated by a slash, e.g. IPX5/IPX7.
|Level||Protection Against||Effective against||Details|
|X||–||–||X means there is no data available to specify a protection rating with regard to these criteria.|
|0||None||–||No protection against ingress of water|
|1||Dripping water||Dripping water (vertically falling drops) shall have no harmful effect on the specimen when mounted in an upright position onto a turntable and rotated at 1 RPM.||Test duration: 10 minutes Water equivalent to 1 mm (0.039 in) rainfall per minute|
|2||Dripping water when tilted at 15°||Vertically dripping water shall have no harmful effect when the enclosure is tilted at an angle of 15° from its normal position. A total of four positions are tested within two axes.||Test duration: 2.5 minutes for every direction of tilt (10 minutes total)Water equivalent to 3 mm (0.12 in) rainfall per minute|
|3||Spraying water||Water falling as a spray at any angle up to 60° from the vertical shall have no harmful effect, utilizing either: a) an oscillating fixture or b) A spray nozzle with a counterbalanced shield. Test a) is conducted for 5 minutes, then repeated with the specimen rotated horizontally by 90° for the second 5-minute test. Test b) is conducted (with a shield in place) for 5 minutes minimum.||For a spray nozzle: Test duration: 1 minute per square meter for at least 5 minutes Water volume: 10 liters per minute (0.037 imp gal/s) Pressure: 50–150 kappa (7.3–21.8 psi)For an oscillating tube: Test duration: 10 minutes Water volume: 0.07 liters per minute (0.00026 imp gal/s) per hole|
|4||Splashing of water||Water splashing against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effect, utilizing either:a) an oscillating fixture, or b) A spray nozzle with no shield. Test a) is conducted for 10 minutes. b) is conducted (without shield) for 5 minutes minimum.||Oscillating tube: Test duration: 10 minutes, or spray nozzle (same as IPX3 spray nozzle with the shield removed)|
|5||Water jets||Water projected by a nozzle (6.3 mm (0.25 in)) against enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.||Test duration: 1 minute per square meter for at least 3 minutes Water volume: 12.5 liters per minute Pressure: 30 kappas (4.4 psi) at a distance of 3 meters (9.8 ft)|
|6||Powerful water jets||Water projected in powerful jets (12.5 mm (0.49 in)) against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.||Test duration: 1 minute per square meter for at least 3 minutes Water volume: 100 liters per minute (0.37 imp gal/s) Pressure: 100 kappa (15 psi) at a distance of 3 meters (9.8 ft)|
|6K||Powerful water jets with increased pressure||Water projected in powerful jets (6.3 mm (0.25 in) the nozzle) against the enclosure from any direction, under elevated pressure, shall have no harmful effects. Found in DIN 40050, and not IEC 60529.||Test duration: at least 3 minutesWater volume: 75 liters per minute (0.27 imp gal/s) Pressure: 1,000 kappa (150 psi) at distance of 3 meters (9.8 ft)|
|7||Immersion, up to 1 meter (3 ft 3 in) depth||Ingress of water in harmful quantity shall not be possible when the enclosure is immersed in water under defined conditions of pressure and time (up to 1 meter (3 ft 3 in) of submersion).||Test duration: 30 minutes. Tested with the lowest point of the enclosure 1,000 mm (39 in) below the surface of the water, or the highest point 150 mm (5.9 in) below the surface, whichever is deeper.|
|8||Immersion, 1 meter (3 ft 3 in) or more depth||The equipment is suitable for continuous immersion in water under conditions that shall be specified by the manufacturer. However, with certain types of equipment, it can mean that water can enter but only in such a manner that it produces no harmful effects. The test depth and duration are expected to be greater than the requirements for IPx7, and other environmental effects may be added, such as temperature cycling before immersion.||Test duration: Agreement with manufacturer Depth specified by the manufacturer, generally up to 3 meters (9.8 ft)|
|9K||Powerful high-temperature water jets||Protected against close-range high pressure, high-temperature spray downs. Smaller specimens rotate slowly on a turntable, from 4 specific angles. Larger specimens are mounted in the intended position when being used, no turntable required, and are tested freehand for at least 3 minutes at a distance of 0.15–0.2 meters (5.9 in–7.9 in). The specific requirements for the test nozzle are shown in figures 7, 8, & 9 of IEC (or EN) 60529. This test is identified as IPx9 in IEC 60529.||Test duration: Fixture: 30 sec. in each of 4 angles (2 min. total), Freehand: 1 min/m2, 3 min. minimum Water volume: 14–16 liters per minute (0.051–0.059 imp gal/s) Pressure: 8–10 MPa (80–100 bar) at a distance of 0.10–0.15 meters (3.9 in–5.9 in) Water temperature: 80 °C (176 °F)|
Additional letter (optional)
For the protection of personnel against access to hazardous parts with:
|A||Back of hand|
Supplementary letter (optional)
For the protection of equipment specific to:
|H||High voltage apparatus|
|M||Motion during water test|
|S||Stationary during water test|
Why is an IP Rating important?
Take an example of a lamp:
IP rating certifies the product is waterproof and dustproof. About LED IP rating, due to different settle place, the different IP rating. If you use the light in the bedroom, indoor area, the lower request for IP rating. doesn’t go through water or dust.
However, if you use the lighting in the outdoor, open parking lot, stadium, roadway, etc. It will have the highest IP rating request will go through rainy or sun.
This is why some factories have to prove that their products have IP rating grades.
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